Ancient city Mansura, which served as the first important stronghold of Muslim on the soil of sub-continent if located about 18 kilometers south east of Shahdadpur. It was founded in the first half of the 8th century A.D. and appears to have come to an and in the 13th century A.D. either due to shifting of river Indus or some other calamity. The city as reported by Arab geographers was situated on the western bank of the river Indus and was surrounded by another branch from the river in such a manner that the land on which the town stood looked like an island. Mehfooza is another detached archaeological site situated to the sout-east of Mansura.
Mansura was a great commercial centre, rich and populous with its trade extended far and wide in all directions. The city was well built and its building was constructed of burnt bricks, wood and clay.
On the question of foundation of the city of Mansura Arab historians and geographers have put forward different opinions. Al Biladuri is of the view that Mansura was founded by Amr ibn Muhammad ibn-al-Qasim between, 728 A.D. and 737 A.D. Al-Masudi, a Muslim geographer is of the view that name of Mansura was after the name of last Ummayyad governor of Sind Mansur ibn Jumhur. A Muslim historian. Zakariya el-Qazvini opines that mansurah was founded by Abu-Jafar-Al-Mansur, the second Abbasid Caliph. Abu Rayahan Al-Beruni says that Muhammad ibn-Al-Qasim entered Sind from seistan and after his conquest gave the name of Mansura to Brahmanabad.
Present remains of Mansura are spread over an extensive area of 4 square kilometers measuring 9000 feet North West to south-east and half of the length across, stand to the height of some 35 feet from the surrounding field level it was a fortified city. The fortification wall, as it stands today is 20 to 25 feet in height.
The city of Mansura had four gates which indicate four directions of trade routes. Ancient names of the gates were Rahul Bahr, Bab-i-Turan, Bah-i-Sundan and Bab-i-Multan. The open places between the piles of bricks and debris indicate broad roads, gardens and recreation places.
The most important and significant structure discovered inside the fortified citadel of Mansura is the Grand Mosque a massive brick structure. The mosque is built on a rectangular plan measuring 250 feet EW and wall 7’ to 9’ feet wide. The exposed general plan of the Mosque reveals a spacious prayer chamber 150’x75’ feet on the western side, the rood of which being supported on 72 pillars in six rows. The mosque also has 25 feet wide corridors on southern and northern sides. A brick laid open courtyard in the centre measuring about 100’x150’ feet. Entrances with a flight of steps also exist in the southern, northern and eastern walls of the mosque.